By Daniel C. Snell
A spouse to the traditional close to East bargains scholars and basic readers a finished evaluate of close to jap civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the good. Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians locations specific emphasis on social and cultural background Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and glossy worlds presents an invaluable bibliographical advisor to this box of analysis
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Extra info for A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World)
Irrigation, previously limited to the large alluvial plains, became a factor also in mountain valleys, because of the Iranian qanat (artificial underground water channels), and in the mountain/desert contact areas, because of the huge dams of Southern Arabia. Large desert spaces were opened to more intensive frequentation and use in the breeding of camels in the Iranian plateau and in Central Asia and dromedaries in the Syro-Arabian desert. Other changes took place in the area of socio-economic and socio-political relations.
The earlier view of these areas as peripheries to a southern core is currently under revision. But despite evidence of complexity, the north has yet to produce a building to rival Uruk’s Eanna IV temple complex or artworks like the Warka vase. Nor did northern Mesopotamian material culture expand into other regions as did that of the south. The north was complex and vibrant but still owed much to, and followed the lead of, the south. If the chiefdom preceded the state, we need to look for it in the Ubaid period of the sixth to fifth millennia (5800–4000 B C E ).
But it must be applied more comprehensively to the Uruk period situation. And the vertical inequalities may not necessarily mean exploitation and oppression, as is often supposed. It is notable that images of leaders in the Uruk period generally did not dominate, but rulers were depicted as unifying and protecting. There are a few seal impressions representing a ruler with captives, but the majority of artworks showed him in ritual contexts or symbolic scenes with animals or building projects. Texts interpreted as ration lists for enslaved or disenfranchised workers may equally be lists of payment for part-time work, in an economy where staple goods acted as money.
A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World) by Daniel C. Snell