By Malcolm Bolton (auth.)
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Additional resources for A Guide to Soil Mechanics
8. As we shall see in chapter 4, this loss of effective soil weight brings with it a loss in the frictional force between soil particles, which is very significant because friction is the principal source of strength and cohesion in soils. The most powerful way of dealing with this buoyancy, however, is to account for water pressures from first principles rather than by using Archimedes' principle on individual soil particles. 2 which is at a depth z level ground y= 19 kN/m 3 y=20kN/m 3 z . 2 Ground and water at rest beneath ground level and h beneath the water table under a large flat field.
Their 'sheet' structure means that a naturally occurring clay grain is likely to be much thinner than it is wide, perhaps only 1o- 5 mm. 6, similar to that of the feldspars from which kaolin, for example, is the chemically weathered residue. CONSTITUTION OF SOIL 23 The clay minerals can be chemically sensitive: the adding of calcium to a 'heavy' clay soil has long been known to offer the hope of reducing the compressibility, and therefore the swelling and softening of the soil, making it easier to work for the farmer.
The soil particles are effectively 'glued' together by surface tension: the menisci are almost as good as cement until the block is broken, after which point the water never finds its way back into the critical locations, and the block crumbles. 4 The Seepage Model This model of behaviour considers the flow of water through the voids in a rigid soil matrix. 2, but also in every construction job where excavations have to be made below groundwater level, in every marine structure, every drainage or water supply scheme and every road.
A Guide to Soil Mechanics by Malcolm Bolton (auth.)