By Fred Aftalion
Goals to supply a global standpoint on chemistry, integrating the tale of chemical technological know-how with that of the chemical undefined, and emphasizing vital advancements of the 20 th century.
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Released in England lower than the name 'Krupp, The Lords of Essen'
Translated from the German by means of G. H. Smith
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Catalytic cracking unit, Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, 1938. 159 29. ICI polyethylene pilot plant units, Wallerscot, Cheshire, 1937 273 30. Rhône-Poulenc synthetics plant, Saint-Fons. -DCNB. 284 31. Total Chimie complex, Gonfreville near Le Havre. Courtesy Total Chimie. 295 32. Tavaux factory. Courtesy Solvay. 298 Page xv Foreword The Chemical Sciences in Society: what may one expect in a series with such a title? The question is legitimate. The answer is important. Science and technology have transformed our world and our ideas.
The originality of Leblanc's process was in the use of chalk (calcium carbonate) which, in certain proportions, can be reacted with coal and sodium sulfate to produce sodium carbonate. 2 On September 25, 1791, Leblanc was granted a patent for his process on behalf of Louis XVI, who had become the constitutional monarch. That same year, with 200,000 livres obtained from the Duc d'Orléans, he built his first soda plant at Saint-Denis, which produced up to 320 tons a year. Two years later, however, the Duc d'Orléans was sent to the gallows, even though he had opted for the Republic and taken the name of Philippe Égalité.
In the long run, repeated failures to achieve transmutation, coupled with the occult nature of many alchemical texts, caused an unfavorable impression to settle in the minds of the less credulous regarding the validity of alchemical theories. The lasting contributions of alchemy came through the development of manipulatory techniques and later, during the Renaissance in the sixteenth century, through a focus on the medical field. The dominance of medicine based solely on herbal remedies came to an end with Paracelsus, who practiced in Basel and elsewhere.
A history of the international chemical industry by Fred Aftalion