Read e-book online Adaptation to Altitude-Hypoxia in Vertebrates PDF

By Prof. Pierre Bouverot (auth.)

ISBN-10: 3642823165

ISBN-13: 9783642823169

ISBN-10: 3642823181

ISBN-13: 9783642823183

Adaptation to altitude hypoxia is characterised by way of a range offunctional adjustments which jointly facilitate oxygen trans­ port from the ambient medium to the cells of the physique. All of those adjustments should be noticeable at one time or one other during hypoxic publicity. but, as already under pressure (Hannon and Vogel, 1977), an exam of the literature offers just a sketchy and sometimes conflicting photo of the precise nature of those alterations and the way they have interaction as a functionality of publicity period. this can be in part a result of constrained variety of variables explored in a given learn, however it can also be caused by modifications in experimental layout, variations between species in susceptibility to hypoxia, nonstandardized experimental stipulations, loss of right regulate of actual (e. g. , temperature) and physiological variables (e. g. , physique mass), failure to take measurements at key sessions of publicity, and gaps in wisdom approximately a few primary mechanisms. in addition the to be had facts on animals local to excessive altitude are meager and/or inconclusive. large additional paintings lower than well-controlled experimental stipulations is needed ahead of an in depth photograph will be made. however, it's been a tenet within the prepara­ tion of this monograph fairly to summarize the tremendously dis­ persed fabric that constitutes the comparative body structure of edition to excessive altitude right into a coherent photograph, than to supply a accomplished survey of the field.

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Example text

In these models, flowing internal medium (blood, b) comes into diffusional exchange contact (D) with an outer medium (gas, g, or water, w) also streaming in most cases. 3, left), reptiles, and amphibians. They exist also in some fishes; but these do not live at high altitude. As a typical example, the mammalian lung can be viewed as a chamber within the body open to the outside by a single channel, the trachea. ~~/_-'....... lib Vb' cross-current infinite pool counter-current E A :--- -'--' ......

There was, therefore, a hyperventilatory response during the hypo25 baric experiment. Due to that hyperventilation, CO 2 was removed in greater amounts, with ensuing hypocapnia (Fig. 2, lower part). 3 (lower row, far left) shows schematically the variations of blood O 2 pressure from venous (v) to arterial (a) blood along the pulmonary capillary. Note that arterial P 02 is lower than alveolar P 02 • b) Tubular lungs are found in birds (Fig. 3, second column). Ventilation is tidal, as in mammals, but the functional "breath-holding" period encountered in alveolar lungs during expiration is virtually absent, due to the unidirectional ventilation of the parabronchial gas-exchanging surfaces, which proceeds from caudal to cephalad during expiration as well as during inspiration (review by Scheid 1979).

Much remains to be learned about other vertebrates, although some aspects of the process have been described in birds (Black and Tenney 1980; Bouverot 1978; Colacino et al. 1977), reptiles (White 1978), and fish (Holeton 1980; Randall 1982). 1 Major Features Both the magnitude and rate of development of the ventilatory response to hypoxia vary among species, and depend on the severity and duration of hypoxic exposure. Some major features can be summarized as follows. 1 Strategies Conceivably, when the O 2 availability decreases in the environment, there are two strategies for maintaining an adequate O 2 transfer to the blood.

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Adaptation to Altitude-Hypoxia in Vertebrates by Prof. Pierre Bouverot (auth.)

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