By Frank L. Smith III
Biological guns have threatened U.S. nationwide defense when you consider that no less than global battle II. traditionally, notwithstanding, the U.S. army has overlooked learn, improvement, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September eleven and the anthrax letters of 2001, the U.S. began spending billions of bucks consistent with 12 months on clinical countermeasures and organic detection structures. yet so much of this investment now comes from the dept of future health and Human companies instead of the dep. of safety. Why has the U.S. army overlooked biodefense and allowed civilian corporations to take the lead in protecting the rustic opposed to organic assaults? In American Biodefense, Frank L. Smith III addresses this confusing and principally untold tale approximately technological know-how, know-how, and nationwide security.
Smith argues that organizational frames and stereotypes have brought on either army overlook and the increase of civilian biodefense. within the armed providers, influential rules approximately kinetic conflict have undermined safeguard opposed to organic struggle. The impact of those principles on technology and know-how demanding situations the normal knowledge that nationwide safeguard coverage is pushed via threats or bureaucratic pursuits. Given the information at paintings contained in the U.S. army, Smith explains how the teachings discovered from biodefense will help clear up different vital difficulties that diversity from radiation guns to cyber attacks.
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Additional info for American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security
Bureaucratic Turf Wars: Winners and Losers If policymaking is a competitive game, then who will win? What determines the outcome of bureaucratic struggles between and inside military and civilian agencies? Since all of the players want the same resources, generic interests in funding and autonomy cannot explain the difference between winners and losers. This means that these questions cannot be answered by simply citing bureaucratic interests—at least not without also relying on other theories or tautological arguments.
So realism predicts that it will also invest in biodefense to mitigate a threat where nuclear deterrence is more likely to fail. Finally, the Soviet Union and other nuclear states developed biological weapons for strategic warfare, which suggests that they might have strategic value. 23 These laws include the 1925 Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating,  Science and Technology for National Security Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare as well as the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention.
Win or lose, this theory predicts that the officials who are responsible for biodefense will be staunch advocates for it. If a bureaucratic organization is assigned responsibility for biodefense, then officials inside that organization will compete for resources by promoting research, development, acquisition, and doctrine. ”64 The special interests of these officials should also provide collective action advantages over any diffuse opposition that they might face. As a result, these officials are predicted to be prominent players in policymaking relating to biodefense.
American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security by Frank L. Smith III