By G. Dunn
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Segment Antenna! 4. Note that the latent vectors have been rescaled by Jeffers after the analysis, so that 'the maximum coefficient (weighting) in each column is + 1. This scaling is arbitrary and is only useful if it helps the reader to assess the relative importance of each of the original measurements in the composition of the calculated orthogonal components. In this example the ftrst component is again clearly a measure of the overall size of the aphids. Jeffers (1967) interpreted the second component as a measure of the number of ovipositor spines, the third as a measure of the number of antennal spines and the fourth as a measure of the number of spiracles.
Axes at right angles to ,each other). However, in practice, because of the correlation of character states, this assumption will not be justified and the Euclidean distance will be a poor measure of the actual distance between OTUs i and j. ) This problem can be overcome either by using oblique coordinate axes and a measure such as M ahalanobis' generalised distance (see later) or by transforming to principal component axes (see Chapter 4). 2. For quantitative characters, Euclidean distance calculated directly on the raw data may make little sense where the characters have different scales.
1. 2. Coefficients of correlation between winged aphid variables (Jeffers, 1967) S· t'> ~. 452 . 3 for an explanation of the characters 1- 19. 1. Note that the sum of squares of the coefficients in each component is unity and that the sum of the latent roots is equal to the sum of the diagonal elements in S. The ftrst principal component accounts for nearly all of the variance in the three characters. 31 (height) The size of the turtle shells could be characterized by this single variable with little loss of information since it alone accounts for some 98% of the variation of the three measurements length, width and height.
An Introduction to Mathematical Taxonomy by G. Dunn