By Michael S. Ball, Gregory W H Smith
This quantity presents a easy framework for utilizing visible info - particularly nonetheless pictures - as a device for social research. The authors be certain the significance of theoretical assumptions in interpreting those facts and supply suggestion on find out how to use images in cognitive, symbolist and structuralist study. The publication is richly illustrated with examples starting from local American mask to fragrance ads.
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But whereas structuralism views beliefs, experience, and so on as simply manifestations of deeper structures, cognitive anthropology and ethnomethodology maintain that there is an investigable social organization evident in the expression of beliefs and people's ordinary experience. Thus, methodologically, both cognitive anthropology and ethnomethodology characteristically rely on ethnographically collected data of actual human conduct as the basis for their investigations of the social organization of experience, and additionally, ethnomethodology is sensitive to the reflexive construction of what passes as data in the ethnographic research setting.
Visually similar masks thus serve distinct purposes in different cultural contexts: For the Salish, the mask style symbolizes giving, whereas for the Kwakiutl the mask style symbolizes withholding. Among certain of the Kwakiutl there is, however, another radically different style of mask that is used to dispense wealth, the Dzonokwa. Visually Dzonokwa is an almost perfect inversion of the Swaihwe and Xwexwe styles (Levi-Strauss, 1983, following p. 7). The Dzonokwa mask exhibits hollow sunken cheeks and eye sockets, a minimal mouth with round, pursed lips, and minimal ears and nose, often surrounded by dark fur or hair.
Sometimes, however, as with the Hanunoo, the culture may lack a word that can be judged for practical purposes equivalent to the English term color (Conklin, 1955). For the Hanunoo, color terms also include much non-color-relevant information concerning, for example, the object's texture, whereas in general English usage, a color exhibits only the "basic" dimensions of brightness, saturation, and hue. Thus an analysis of ordinary language can provide an appropriate avenue to investigate the mental sets natives routinely employ to categorize the seen world in color terms.
Analyzing Visual Data by Michael S. Ball, Gregory W H Smith