By R D Frandson; Thomas Leslie Spurgeon
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Additional info for Anatomy and physiology of farm animals
Most is lost via the urine, but it is also lost in the feces and by evaporation from body surfaces, such as the skin and respiratory passages. Water replacement is almost entirely by drinking, because minimal amounts of water are produced in the bodies of domestic animals as a result of cellular metabolism (metabolic water). Proteins After water, proteins are the next largest constituent of protoplasm. Proteins are complex high-molecular-weight colloidal molecules consisting primarily of amino acids that are polymerized (joined) into polypeptide chains (Fig.
At the whole-animal level or at the cellular level, all living things respond to stresses placed upon them by changes in their environment. Their responses are attempts to maintain a state of homeostasis. Growth is increase in size. Increase in size of a cell or organ beyond normal is called hypertrophy. An increase in the size of a structure due to an increase in the number of cells is called hyperplasia. A decrease in size from normal is called atrophy. Failure of a tissue or organ to develop is called aplasia, while incomplete development or defective development of a tissue or organ is called hypoplasia.
Other heavy metals, including lead, may be used as so-called stains. The term stain may be used somewhat loosely, because the areas where the metals concentrate inhibit the passage of electrons, giving an electron-dense appearance that shows up as a dark area in the final photographic print. After fixation, the tissue is dehydrated and infiltrated with plastic and embedded in plastic for sectioning. The sections are cut extremely thin (less than 30 nm), placed on a grid, and examined with the electron microscope.
Anatomy and physiology of farm animals by R D Frandson; Thomas Leslie Spurgeon