By Guy Bradley
This publication, the 1st full-scale remedy of historic Umbria in any language, takes a balanced view of the region's heritage within the first millennium BC, targeting neighborhood activities and motivations up to the impression of outdoor affects and Roman regulations.
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Extra info for Ancient Umbria: State, Culture, and Identity in Central Italy from the Iron Age to the Augustan Era
In the medieval period the term had been used in the sense of the ruler ‘maintaining his state’, meaning his own position. 14 It is this abstract concept that modern social scientists and historians have applied to a type of social organization reached by communities as they increase in complexity, and which is characteristic of almost all of human society today. Radcliffe-Brown deﬁned it as ‘a collection of individual human beings connected by a complex system of relations. ’15 Various difﬁculties arise in applying this concept to societies other than those in postmedieval western Europe where it emerged.
It might seem that their joint ‘occupation’ of the Po valley, a famously fertile area of Italy, would provide a plausible reason for the formation of this image, but it is more likely that this originally stems from the supposed Etruscan connection with the Lydians. 52 What it cannot be taken to signify is that the area was part of a straightforward Umbrian ethnic region, which extended to the coast. 53 This includes attestations of a language neither Etruscan nor Umbrian on stelae from Ariminum and Novilara (between Fanum and Pisaurum).
G. C. Ampolo, ‘La formazione della città nel Lazio: Periodo IV B’, DdA (), –; Cornell, Beginnings, –. g. A. Rosenberg, Der Staat der alten Italiker (Berlin, ); but what I am concerned with is the formation and accumulation of such institutions. For a similar approach see G. Tagliamonte, I ﬁgli di Marte (Rome, ), –. g. A. Snodgrass, Archaeology and the Rise of the Greek State (Cambridge, ); W. G. Runciman, ‘Origins of States: The Case of Archaic Greece’, Comparative Studies in Society and History (), –; J.
Ancient Umbria: State, Culture, and Identity in Central Italy from the Iron Age to the Augustan Era by Guy Bradley