By Lauralee Sherwood
Animal body structure: From Genes to Organisms second variation
Keep up with todays fast advances within the organic sciences with ANIMAL body structure: FROM GENES TO ORGANISMS 2E with CourseMate!
With assurance of animal species that may be appropriate for your animal-related occupation, this biology textual content offers you the instruments you must succeed.
Boxes discovered in the course of the textual content comparable to Molecular Biology and Genomics, past the fundamentals, demanding situations and Controversies, Unanswered Questions, and a better examine variation offer you examples of state-of-the-art study and assist you see how what you're studying applies to the genuine world.
Check Your realizing questions after each one significant part assist you evaluation the most rules as you learn. each one bankruptcy then ends with a bankruptcy precis, a collection of evaluate, Synthesize, and learn questions, and an inventory of recommended Readings for additional examine.
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Extra resources for Animal Physiology From Genes to Organisms
All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. 8 C H APTE R O NE © Cengage Learning, 2013 (a) Chemical level: a molecule in the membrane that encloses a cell (b) Cellular level: a cell in the stomach lining (c) Tissue level: layers of tissue in the stomach wall (d) Organ level: the stomach Paul Yancey (e) Body system level: the digestive system (f) Organism level: the whole body FIGURE 1-2 Levels of organization in an animal body, showing an example for each level.
Some physiologists have termed nonhomeostatic regulation rheostasis (“variable state”). Evolution has also come up with two other mechanisms for regulating useful nonhomeostatic change, which we mention frequently in later chapters: • Reset system: one that changes the set point of a negative-feedback system, in a temporary, permanent, or cyclic fashion (Figure 1-10a). Fever is an example of a temporary reset of body temperature. At sexual maturity in a mammal, sex hormone concentrations are permanently reset to higher levels.
Some internal processes are not always homeostatic but may be changed by reset and positive-feedback systems There are many nonhomeostatic outcomes of acclimatization to changing environmental stresses. For many animals, negative-feedback regulation cannot be modified to keep working at an optimum, and acclimatization involves switching to a state of dormancy (a state of greatly reduced metabolism), such as hibernation by a small mammal in which body temperature falls dramatically. Or consider the embryos of a brine shrimp (sold commercially as “sea monkeys”) in the Great Salt Lake in Utah.
Animal Physiology From Genes to Organisms by Lauralee Sherwood