By Fritz Hans Schweingruber
he „Atlas of Woody Plant Stems“ is a com- clearly, it was once most unlikely to hide thoroughly the Tprehensively illustrated e-book with brief, in- huge, immense variability of flora varieties. we now have formative texts. We selected this structure simply because plant attempted, even if, to demonstrate the most rules and anatomy and morphology can simply be conveyed by means of positive factors. Many many years of assortment and prepa- certain images. additionally, a brilliant presentation tion supplied the foundation for this e-book. may still allure a broader public, not just the s- cialist. we are hoping that the combo of anatomy Fritz Schweingruber want to thank the Swiss and morphology will create curiosity and interest. Federal examine Institute WSL, that provided him Amateurs will benefit from the wide variety of images; hospitality after his retirement. The authors thank all readers may be stuck via specific chap- the scholars and co-workers that experience, for many years, ters; experts will delve into facets and photograph- accumulated and ready samples, and who helped graphs that could have by no means been provided ahead of; with the English translations. because of John Kirby lecturers may well use the photographs for illustrations in who made the fnal English enhancing. periods with students.
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Additional resources for Atlas of Woody Plant Stems: Evolution, Structure, and Environmental Modifications
Visible are the bordered pits on the vessel cell wall (upper half) and simple pits with big apertures in ray cells. The side walls show simple pits in the cross section. 45 THE RISKS OF STEM THICKENING: DILATATION AND PHELLEM FORMATION M 3 SECONDARY GROWTH: ADVANTAGES AND RISKS ost cambia produce bifacially: this means that they make xylem towards the inside of the stem and phloem towards the outside. 21). Anticlinal cell divisions enable the stem to enlarge its girth. At the beginning of growth, for example, a little Pinus strobus stem had 794 initial cells in its cambium.
Alps, Switzerland. 5 Stem cross section of the monocotyledonous Canarian Date Palm (Phoenix canariensis) from Gomera, Canary Islands. The irregular distribution of vascular bundles is characteristic for most monocotyledonous trees. 6 Stem cross section of a conifer. Norway Spruce (Picea abies) from the montane zone of the Alps. Seasonal climate triggers the formation of annual rings. 7 Stem cross section of a dicotyledonous tree. Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor) from Southwestern Australia. The formation of annual rings is frequent in climates with mild winters and dry summers.
A New Caledonian shrub (photo: Endress and Igersheim 2000). 62 Amborella trichocarpa wood. The wood consists of tracheids and the missing vessels are characteristic of this plant (left). The growth ring boundary in this tropical tree is an expression of a period of dormancy. Relationships to Angiospermae are indicated by large rays (middle). The conifer-like bordered pits on tracheids show relationships to Gymnospermae (right; slides: Carlquist). 63 Birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis), a representative of the Piperales.
Atlas of Woody Plant Stems: Evolution, Structure, and Environmental Modifications by Fritz Hans Schweingruber